Thursday, December 5, 2019
Question: Use the theory relating to adaptation, aggregation and arbitrage to explain the success of Lenovo/Motorola in India. Answer: Introduction This report is basically for developing the strategies for Lenovo Organization in Chinese market and finding the strategies which Lenovo has adopted for India for getting success. Here, it is discussed about the strategies of AAA that is adopted in India and should also be adopted by Lenovo in Chinese market. Lenovo Organization in India For discussing the reason of success of Lenovo organization in India, we will relate it with the three theories, Adaptation, Aggregation, and Arbitrage. Adaptation Lenovo modifies its products according to the need and requirement of the time. Lenovo provides a wide range of services and facilities in their products. If we discuss about selling of the Lenovo products in initial stage, it started with providing the 16 GB hard disks with only 256 MB RAM which was enough at that time. But according to the requirements of present time, it sells laptops even of 2TB hard disk and up to 16 GB RAM. In the other adaptation theory of Focus, Lenovo mainly focused on the selling of laptops and somewhat on tablets, in India, which resulted in a great success for Lenovo laptops in the Indian market. Lenovos laptops are available in the market at affordable price. It provides quality at less cost according to the needs and requirements of the customers. Lenovo provides outstanding design and a professional look to the user. Lenovo also innovates various features in their laptops (Mathur, 2012). The examples of these are the detachable laptops which can be use d as both Tablets and Laptops. Aggregation Lenovo follows the strategy that it works in both developed and developing market in India. For developed market, the company used to make strategies to stay in the developed market while for developing market, the company tries to establish and promote its product; like Mumbai is the developed market for Lenovo where it maintains the quality of product and innovates new feature to stabilise its performance while Jaipur is a developing market where they try to know the peoples need and requirement and accordingly launches its product in the market. The company also used to develop strategies to stay in this competitive market. Currently, the main competitor of Lenovo is Dell in the Indian market. Lenovo had worked well in Indian market and ranked itself ahead from HP, Samsung etc. in laptop market. For competing in the market, Lenovo produces reliable products with high quality and features at relatively low price (Heinecke, 2011). Arbitrage For providing best quality and services at affordable price, Lenovo used to outsource some products and services from other sources; like, for operating system, Lenovo doesnt prepare its own operating system but it makes a contract with Microsoft or Linux for the operating system, to improve user experience. The other example of outsourcing for Indian market is the contract of ReasonNet. Lenovo ReasonNet provides its best IT services to Lenovo for various purposes but most of the hardware components are manufactured by Lenovo itself for Laptops (Lenovo, 2009). Here there and everywhere campaign of Lenovo is making the best offshoring source to Lenovo (economist, 2013). Strategy for Lenovo in Chinese Market The AAA strategies that should be followed by Lenovo in the Chinese market are as follows: Adaptation Adaptation strategy of Lenovo should include that Lenovo should have its design centre, manufacturing units and marketing centres in China. Lenovo needs to innovate various new features in their products and try to develop more reliable and best quality products for China. Lenovo should adopt the new technology available in the market. It should maintain its own supply chain unit by itself to stabilize in the Chinese Market (Jing, 2011). Aggregation Aggregation strategy of Lenovo should include the strategy of first focusing on the metro cities of the China. The targeting of market should include the proper research on market like current needs and requirements of the new technologies which can help Chinese market effectively and efficiently (Ghemawat, 2007). The company should also do some special preparation for the Chinese market competition. Arbitrage The company should outsource Chinese operating system for the Chinese market. The company should develop the products according to the culture of China and should provide various attractive offers in the festival seasons. Hence, these strategies can be used to compete in the market of China. Relevance of the Strategies Most probably, the above strategies works in Chinese market. If we consider the described adaptive strategies, Chinese market is proved as best manufacturing unit for the Electronics items. People of China have the outstanding capability towards the electronics, Chinese market develops various Electronics products. There is very high level of competition in the Chinese market in Electronics. Thus, Lenovo should innovate new features for their products. Managing own supple chain in Chinese market may reduce various costs for Lenovo (OECD, 2011). Again, if we talk about the described Aggregation strategies, Chinese market already has lot of facilities available in the electronics market. Thus, for stabilising in the Chinese market the companies need to deeply go through the requirements of the market and find various solutions in the electronics field which can help the Chinese people in accomplishing the various tasks. If the company is able to find those facilities that can be innovated to help in Chinese market then that will help the company in making its reputation in Chinese market (Deutsch Asset Wealth management 2014). Chinese people are very conscious about their culture. Thus, adopting a Chinese operating system which can work in Chinese language can be a great idea for stabilising in Chinese market. Due to cultural consciousness for the Chinese people, Lenovo should mainly consider that there products should not hurt the culture of Chinese People. Conclusion Chinese market is a hub of electronics items or it can be said a great source of electronics items. Thus, it is very necessary to develop various strategies to stabilise as well as to retain its position in the Chinese market very carefully. Thus, Lenovo needs to develop and innovate new features in their products and should go through the Chinese market deeply. References 1. Mathur, Sameer (2012). Global Value Creation: Adaptation, Aggregation and Arbitrage. 2. Economist (2013). Here There and everywhere. 3. Lenovo (2009). An Excellent reason to think about outsourcing. 4. Heinecke, P. (2011). Success factors of Regional strategies for multinational Corporations, 3 (12) p. 15- 60. 5. Jing, Wang (2011). Global Strategies Of Chinese Companies. 6. Ghemawat, Pankaj (2007). Managing Differences, The central challenge of global strategy. 7. OECD (2011). Chinas Emergence as a Market Economy Achievements and challenges. 8. Deutsche Asset Wealth Management (2014). Understanding and accessing the Chinese Equity market.
Thursday, November 28, 2019
Perfect Competition and Monopoly Essay Perfect Competition and Monopoly (a) I. Explain perfect competition and monopoly market structures, and identify the key factors that distinguish them. Perfect Competition Market In economic theory, the perfect competition is a market form in which no producer or consumer has the power to influence prices in the market. According to the website wordIQ. com, in order to classify the market is a perfect competition market, the market must match below criteria: 1. There are a large number of small producers and consumers on a given market 2. None of the producers or consumers can influence the price on their own (ie. Price takers) 3. Goods and services are perfect substitute (ie. The goods or services is homogeneous) 4. All resources are perfectly mobile 5. There is no transaction cost 6. The price is determined at the level that equates supply and demand, and moves instantaneously to equilibrium Monopoly Market Structure A monopoly market structure is completely different from the perfect market structure. It is a persistent market, with one and only supplier of the particular product or service. Since there is only one supplier, it can control the supply level, and therefore, it has the power to influence prices in the market. Key factors that distinguish Perfect Competition Market and Monopoly Market Structure There are three main factors to distinguish a Perfect Competition Market and a Monopoly Market structures, which are seller entry barriers, number of sellers, and the nature of the products. Seller entry barrier is one of the key factors. For Perfect Competition market, there is no or little barrier. We will write a custom essay sample on Perfect Competition and Monopoly specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Perfect Competition and Monopoly specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Perfect Competition and Monopoly specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer For seller entry barriers, they include government regulations, patents, import/export restrictions or large investment and start up costs. According to Sloman and Norris (1997), there is complete freedom of entry for firms and established firms are unable to stop new firms entering the market. Number of seller is also a factor to determine whether the market is a perfect competition market or a monopoly market. For a perfect competition market, the number of seller in the market is one, and there is no other competitors in the market. On the other hand, there are many sellers in the market, and each seller is competing against each other. Also, since there is a great competition in the market, it is more difficult to gain market share than it is in the monopoly market. The nature of the product/service is another factor to distinguish between these two market structures. According to Duffy (1993), in the perfect competition market, the products sold as homogeneous since there is no differentiation between what the firms sell, and consumers are able to buy same product from many different sellers, at a similar price. However, in the monopoly market, the product is only available from a particular seller, and buyer cannot buy the product from other sellers. II. Choose two different industries from your home country representing perfect competition and monopoly, and identify their key characteristics in relation to the factors used to differentiate between the market structures. Ã¢â¬Å"Yum ChaÃ¢â¬ Market in Hong Kong Food and Beverage market is one of the examples of Perfect Competition markets in Hong Kong, and there are many businesses in this market. The businesses in this market include restaurants, fast food stores, pubs, etc. Yum ChaÃ¢â¬ is synonymous with eating Dim Sum, and it is a Cantonese Cuisine, which is very popular in Hong Kong, therefore, the Ã¢â¬Å"Yum ChaÃ¢â¬ market is very large in Hong Kong. To prove that the Ã¢â¬Å"Yum ChaÃ¢â¬ market is a perfect competition market, three factors will be used, which are seller entry barriers, number of sellers, and the nature of the products. For Ã¢â¬Å"Yum ChaÃ¢â¬ Market, seller entry barrier is very little. To setup a restaurant in Hong Kong, entrepreneur need to ensure the business meets the hygiene and fire safety requirements, and apply the license from the government. Apart from the required government license, there is no other license required. There is a large number of Cantonese Cuisine restaurants in Hong Kong, and it is another factor to identify that this is a perfect competition market. The nature of product in this market can also prove that this is a perfect competition market. The product is this market is homogeneous, and the dim sum served by each restaurant is similar. Consumers can eat similar dim sum at different restaurants, at similar price. Public Buses Market in Hong Kong Unlike Australia, most people in Hong Kong use public transport for their daily life, since Hong Kong is a small place, and driving in this place involves many obstacles, such as traffic jam problem, difficult to find parking spaces, etc. Public buses are one of the most common public transport in Hong Kong, and public buses market is an example of monopoly markets in Hong Kong. To prove this is a monopoly market, previously identified key factors will be used. There is a big entry barrier for this industry, and it is almost impossible for new entrant to this market. There are three bus service providers in Hong Kong, and each of them serves different territory. For example, Kowloon Motor Bus (KMB) Company serves Kowloon and New Territories. KMB has the exclusive license from the Hong Kong Government, and it has rights to provide bus services, subject to approval from the government. Although KMB has the right to operate and provide services, it is monitored by the government, and government applied many restriction to them, such as routes, fares, service hours, fleets, etc. With the exclusive licenses and many government restrictions, it makes a big barrier for the new entrant to this market. As mention, KMB is the only bus service provider in Kowloon and New Territories, therefore, the number of service provider is one, and this meets the requirement of being a monopoly market. For the nature of product, there is no buses allowed to be operated in Kowloon and the New Territories, therefore, this service is unique in the area, and bus users cannot choose the service from other providers. III. Discuss (with examples) how the monopolist can practice price discrimination Price discrimination is a pricing technique that is used by monopolist, used to maintain an economic profit. With this technique, seller charges different customers different prices for the same product, not justified by cost differences. For example, mobile phone service provider, Ã¢â¬Å"Three Hong KongÃ¢â¬ , is the exclusive official supplier of Apple iPhone 4 in Hong Kong. In other words, the market for iPhone 4 is a monopoly market. Ã¢â¬Å"Three Hong KongÃ¢â¬ is applying price discrimination technique in the price setting of iPhone 4. For example, for the mobile phone users with high volume usage, the price of the handset is lower than the users with low volume of usage. IV. Using your case study of monopoly provide an argument for and against monopoly. Argument for monopoly In the monopoly market, there is no competition in the market, and businesses do not need to lower their prices to compete with competitors, and this can ensure that the businesses would able to make an acceptable profit and to provide reasonable level of service to their customers. Many monopoly market is monitored by the government or other government agencies, and this can ensure the services or goods are of reasonable level of quality. Also, there would be a way for the customers to make complaint against the company. Argument against monopoly One of the argument against monopoly is the market is lack of competition, and the monopoly business does not have motivation to make any innovation to improve its product or service. Also, in the monopoly market, business has power to influence the supply level and have great influence to affect the price level. In this structure of market, consumers cannot choose their preferred suppliers and have no power to influence the price level. (b) I. Choose a case study from your home country where an externality exists in a current market. Illustrate the situation and the resulting deadweight loss in a diagram and discuss ways that your government has addressed the presence of negative externalities in the market. Petroleum industry is an example of industry with externality in the market. There are many petrol stations in Hong Kong, with different brand names, and we assume that this is a perfect competition market. If there is no externality in this market, we would conclude that the private cost that customers pay is same as social cost, and the private benefit is same as the social benefit gained. However, there is social cost in this market, which is the air pollution. Air pollution is a serious problem in Hong Kong today, and government is trying very hard to improve this problem. There are many sources of the air pollution problem, and the use of private car is one of the sources. Air pollution also indirectly increase other social costs, such as health problem. If we take into account of the social cost, the market is inefficient. The diagram below illustrate the problem. In the diagram below, if we do not take into account of social cost, the price would be at Pp and quanityt would be at Qp. However, if we take into account of social cost, the price would be at Ps at quantity of Qs. For gas station to sell, the marginal social benefit must exceed the marginal social cost. The government has addressed to this externality by applying taxes on each litre of petrol sold. With this petrol tax, people are discouraged to drive their own car as transport, and this would help to minimize the pollution problem. II. Suggest other options for dealing with negative externalities in your case studies (relate this back to your answer in part (i)). Other options for dealing with air pollution can be enforce car owners to send the cars to have regular inspection on the emission control system, and this can ensure all vehicles on the road would not cause great problem to air quality. Also, the government can impose toll on some main roads or highways, and this can discourage people to drive their own cars. And this would help to lower the air pollution problem. WordIQ website 2010, Perfect Competition Definition, accessed 16 August 2010, . Duffy, J. , (1993), Economics, Cliffs Notes Inc, USA. Sloman, J Norris, K. , (1999), Economics, Prentice Hall, Australia.
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Accidental Shifts in Meaning Accidental Shifts in Meaning Accidental Shifts in Meaning By Mark Nichol Words often slowly change their meanings over time and sometimes, as in the case of fulsome, flip-flop but occasionally popular culture inadvertently puts them on the fast track to transformation. Movies and television shows introduce or popularize new senses for words all the time, but there are at least two cases in which filmed entertainment unintentionally created new senses for words that supplanted the original usage. In the first instance, it was actually the print version of The Maltese Falcon, by Dashiell Hammett, in which the author dared to have protagonist Sam Spade refer to a member of antagonist Kasper GutmanÃ¢â¬â¢s entourage as Ã¢â¬Å"your gunsel.Ã¢â¬ That word, probably from the Yiddish term for Ã¢â¬Å"young goose,Ã¢â¬ originally was hobo slang for a boy in a sexual relationship with an older man. Lore has it that Hammett intended that meaning and inserted it in the original short story to put one over on a prissy magazine editor. When screenwriter and first-time director John Huston adapted HammettÃ¢â¬â¢s tale for the big screen supposedly by merely transcribing the storyÃ¢â¬â¢s dialogue he retained the term, and the movie-going public, like the editor, assumed that the word refers to a gunman. Ever since then, writers searching for an evocative slang term for a hired gun have passed the viral error on. A similar transmogrification occurred with the word nimrod, a generic reference to the biblical character of that name, who in the Good Book is referred to as Ã¢â¬Å"a mighty hunter.Ã¢â¬ How, then, did the word become a synonym for jerk or idiot? We have none other a personage (or, more accurately, a rabbitage) than Bugs Bunny to thank for this significant shift in meaning. In a Looney Tunes cartoon featuring BugsÃ¢â¬â¢s fumbling nemesis Elmer Fudd as a hunter on the rabbitÃ¢â¬â¢s trail, the carrot-chomping coney sardonically refers to Fudd as a nimrod insulting him by derisively comparing him to a biblical personage renowned for his hunting skills. Apparently, later generations of Looney Tunes fans who hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t kept up with their Scripture picked up on BugsÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude without understanding the ironic allusion, and the word acquired a new meaning, while its original sense faded into the background. The moral of these stories? If you come across a mystery word in your reading and are tempted to employ it in your own writing, first be sure you understand its implications. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Vocabulary category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:50 Redundant Phrases to Avoid75 Synonyms for Ã¢â¬Å"TalkÃ¢â¬ 40 Words Beginning with "Para-"
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Feasibility & Marketing for small business - Research Paper Example The location on Adelaide Street is ideal since there are few salons in the surrounding area. The street connects to other major streets in London, which makes the transportation of inventory and other commodities easy. The business site on Adelaide Street is a visible place just off the road with shopping malls on its opposite side. The malls increase traffic on the street, providing a better opportunity to reach out to more potential customers. The site for the business is 200 square feet, which is ideal for the various services that the business will offer. An additional 50 square feet is available as office space, enough to accommodate the managerial staff and business records. There is ample parking space of 280 square feet at the basement of the building. Considering the business viability of the area, this is a prime site. The business will incur site expenses at the rate of $9.50 per square foot (For Lease: Office / Medical / Clinic, 2014). For the total of 250 square feet, the business expects to spend a total of ($9.50) (250 square feet) = $2375. This cost is inclusive of building insurance and maintenance costs. The average annual expenditure on hairdressing and related personal care is $829 per household (Affairs, 2011). This expenditure forms 1.4% of the total expenditure of the potential customers (Affairs, 2011). These figures indicate a good market potential for salon services, which indicates that the salon business is an attractive opportunity in this area. The major direct competitors are Skin Care Nails and Spa, and Sheer Elegance Saloon and Spa. Skin Care Nails and Spa is a threat because of celebrity status and adequate resources at its disposal. Sheer Elegance Saloon and Spa has a wide variety of services and offers them at lower prices. The indirect competitors include Studio 83, which is 0.6 miles away, and First Choice Hair